In this article, we’re going to learn about mitohormesis, the activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as signaling molecules, and how and why ROS can be both beneficial and harmful. We will also discuss what leads to excessive ROS production and accumulation, how this associates with aging, and where antioxidants fit into the equation. Lastly, we’ll discuss nutritional strategies that can support the antioxidant defenses cells and mitochondria use to protect themselves against excessive ROS.
Glycolysis is the metabolic pathway that breaks down the carbohydrate glucose to produce cell energy in the form of ATP. Glycolysis generates ATP directly, as a product of the pathway’s chemical reactions, and indirectly, using energy generated by electrons extracted from the chemical bonds of glucose. In the human body, glucose is the preferred fuel for the vast majority of cells.
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, is a circular loop rotating through eight organic acid intermediates (e.g., citrate, malate, oxaloacetate). This cycle plays a critical role in moving cell energy production forward, because it is the first pathway of the final stage of energy extraction from nutrients, in which carbon units are fully oxidized. The intermediate products formed in this cycle are also used to build molecules including proteins, DNA, and RNA.
Oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) is the major pathway of ATP production. ATP is the energy-rich molecule that powers cellular processes that require energy input. OXPHOS occurs in mitochondria and uses energy extracted in the metabolism of cellular fuels, particularly in glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and the citric acid cycle, to power the production of ATP.
Fatty acids are an important fuel for the generation of cell energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Fatty acid oxidation, also known as beta-oxidation, is the metabolic pathway of fatty acid breakdown for energy production. Fatty acids are the primary source of energy for the heart (i.e., the cardiac muscle) and skeletal muscle during rest or moderate physical activity.
Insulin is a hormone produced by beta cells in the pancreas with a central role in the regulation of metabolism and cell energy reserves. The major metabolic action of insulin is to regulate blood glucose levels and to promote the storage of energy substrates as macromolecules that can be mobilized between meals or in contexts of high energy demand.
Immunometabolism is the crosstalk between metabolic and immunological processes. Mitochondria, the cellular structures that generate cell energy, are key elements in the crosstalk between metabolic and immune signaling pathways.
Qualia Immune combines 19 carefully selected ingredients for premium immune support. We think of it as being training for the immune system; a formulation designed to challenge the immune system in ways that will help it be fitter and perform more intelligently.
Viruses are everywhere cellular life is present, often in unfathomable numbers. They mutate very often, frequently by recombining with other viruses. This means that new viruses are constantly being generated.
As we’ll learn in this article, viruses are very simple, but despite their simplicity, they are very effective and impressive little creatures. We’ll also learn how our immune system rises to the challenge.