Koji | Koji Culture
Supports skin health *
Supports skin hydration *
Mineral-rich inactive koji culture is a source of seven fermented minerals: zinc, selenium, copper, iron, molybdenum, chromium, and manganese. Japanese cuisine contains an abundant amount and variety of fermented foods. Some of the most famous of these foods—miso, soy sauce, sake, and amazake—use a probiotic mold called koji (Aspergillus oryzae) and follow an ancient Japanese method to ferment starches like cooked rice, barley, and/or soybeans. Koji culture, and the fermented foods made from it, have been credited as one of the reasons a traditional Japanese diet is one of the world’s healthiest cuisines. The mineral-rich koji culture is made by adding koji and minerals to a food-grade fermentation medium. The result is a food source of seven fermented minerals.
Mineral-rich inactive koji culture is a food source of seven fermented minerals—iron, zinc, molybdenum, chromium, selenium, manganese and copper—made using a patented Koji fermentation process.
Mineral-rich inactive koji culture is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), non-GMO, vegan, allergen-free, and Kosher certified.
Mineral-rich inactive koji culture is enriched with seven minerals. We choose a dose of the koji culture to augment the amount of minerals in the diet, and supply an amount of koji culture—koji culture itself has health benefits—to support healthy skin.* A 250 mg dose provides a minimum of 20-28% of the recommended daily intake of seven minerals. One of our dosing principles is to determine whether there is a dosing range in which many of the benefits occur and above which there appears to be diminishing returns (see Neurohacker Dosing Principles).
Source of skin-healthy nutrients, including glycosylceramide [1–4] and kojic acid *
Supports skin moisture retention and hydration *
Essential cofactor in over 300 enzymatic reactions and required for over 2,000
transcription factors that regulate gene expression; involved in cell division, metabolism, protein synthesis, immune system function, protection against oxidative stress, and support of DNA repair .*
Around 6% of the total zinc in the human body is located in the skin. The majority of the skin’s zinc stores are found in the epidermis, where it is essential for epidermal renewal and keratinocyte differentiation. Zinc stabilizes cell membranes and plays an important role in skin morphogenesis, repair, and maintenance, as well as in protection and defense via catalytic, structural and/or regulatory functions of proteins and/or enzymes involved in these processes [7–9].*
Supports the activity of skin matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), including collagenase (MMP-1), elastase (MMP-12) and gelatinase (MMP-2) [7–9].*
Supports the activity of skin antioxidant defenses: superoxide dismutase, metallothioneins (which store Zn and also have antioxidant properties) [7–9].*
Supports the activity of enzymes involved in regulation of gene expression in the skin, such as DNA and RNA polymerases [7–9].*
Selenium is part of selenoproteins that play important roles in DNA synthesis, protection from oxidative damage, keratinocyte function, skin development, and wound healing .*
Most ingested selenium is converted by the liver into selenocysteine, which is used in the biosynthesis of selenoproteins including the enzymes glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase . The enzymes have major roles in the skin’s defenses against oxidative stress.*
Selenium in glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases aids in eliminating lipid hydroperoxides, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxynitrites formed during oxidative stress, leading to cell membrane stabilization and defense against DNA damage. Selenium supports DNA synthesis and repair, cell membrane stabilization, and prevention of oxidative stress [9,10].*
Selenium protects keratinocyte stem cells (KSCs) against senescence by preserving their stemness phenotype through adhesion to the basement membrane. Selenium supplementation supports skin homeostasis during chronological aging .*
Copper has a role in physiological processes in virtually all tissues of the human body. Around 50% of the human body’s copper is found in the bones and muscles, 15% in the skin, 15% in the bone marrow, 10% in the liver and 8% in the brain .
Copper supports the synthesis of collagen (types I, II, and V) and elastin fiber components (elastin, fibrillins) by fibroblasts and supports TGF-β signaling *
Supports the levels of HSP47—a collagen-specific molecular chaperone protein which plays an important role in collagen triple helix formation and stabilization that is downregulated in aged skin .*
Cofactor of lysyl oxidase (LOX), essential for stabilization of the extracellular matrix, specifically the enzymatic cross-linking of collagen and elastin .*
Cofactor of tyrosinase - melanin biosynthesis enzyme .
Cofactor of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) .
Counters cellular oxidative stress, membrane damage, and lipid peroxidation .*
Iron is important for the growth, maintenance and normal physiology of the skin, hair, and nails.* Iron has essential roles in oxygen transport, redox reactions, and mitochondrial respiration. Iron’s actions are particularly relevant in the regulation of mitochondrial DNA synthesis in the metabolically active cells of the basal epidermis, the hair papilla, and the nail bed, which undergo a programmed and continuous sequence of maturation and loss (death) at the skin surface .
Manganese (Mn) has an important role in several physiologic processes as an enzyme cofactor or activator. Manganese is required for the activation of prolidase, an enzyme that can provide the amino acid proline for collagen synthesis in human skin cells [19,20].* Glycosaminoglycan synthesis, important for wound healing, for example, requires manganese-activated glycosyltransferases . Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the principal antioxidant enzyme in the mitochondria .
Molybdenum is required by enzymes catalyzing diverse key reactions in the global carbon, sulfur and nitrogen metabolism. It plays an important role in the detoxification of several compounds produced in the body including sulfites .
Chromium supports healthy insulin signaling and carbohydrate metabolism . Chromium indirectly influences the health and appearance of the skin because both insulin signaling and carbohydrate metabolism influence healthy skin aging.*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, cure, or prevent any disease.
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