Magnesium Threonate

Overview:
Magnesium threonate is a salt of magnesium and L-Threonate with neuroprotective and nootropic effects. Magnesium threonate can significantly improve memory and learning.

Scientific Name:
Magnesium (2R,3S)-2,3,4-Trihydroxybutanate

Mechanisms:

  • L-Threonate significantly enhances the bioavailability of magnesium[1]
  • Magnesium inhibits the activation of NMDA receptors and blocks calcium channels, decreasing neuronal hyperexcitation and excititoxicity[2,3]
  • Magnesium can greatly improve both short and long-term memory and delay age-related memory impairment[4]
  • Can have anxiolytic effects and improve sleep quality[5,6]
  • Improves synaptic activity and plasticity[7]
  • Improves glucose metabolism and energy production[8]
  • May increase cerebrospinal fluid in the brain[9]
References

[1] Slutsky I, et al (2010). Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron. 2010 Jan 28;65(2):165-77. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.12.026
[2] Johnson JW and Ascher P. (1990). Voltage-dependent block by intracellular Mg2+ of N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated channels. Biophys J, 57(5):1085-90. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3495(90)82626-6
[3] Iseri LT & French JH (1984). Magnesium: nature’s physiologic calcium blocker. Am Heart J. 1984 Jul;108(1):188-93. doi: 10.1016/0002-8703(84)90572-6
[4] Billard JM (2006). Ageing, hippocampal synaptic activity and magnesium. Magnes Res, 19(3):199-215. doi: 10.1684/mrh.2006.0063
[5] Poleszak E, et al (2004). Antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like activity of magnesium in mice. Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 78(1):7-12. doi: 10.1055/s-2002-33195
[6] Held K, et al (2002). Oral Mg(2+) supplementation reverses age-related neuroendocrine and sleep EEG changes in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry, 35(4):135-43. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2004.01.006
[7] Slutsky I, et al (2004). Enhancement of synaptic plasticity through chronically reduced Ca2+ flux during uncorrelated activity. Neuron, 44(5):835-49. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2004.11.013
[8] Cinar V, et al (2008). The effect of magnesium supplementation on glucose and insulin levels of tae-kwan-do sportsmen and sedentary subjects. Pak J Pharm Sci, 21(3):237-40. PMID: 18614418
[9] Morris ME (1992). Brain and CSF magnesium concentrations during magnesium deficit in animals and humans: neurological symptoms. Magnes Res, 5(4):303-13. PMID: 1296767
[10] Köseoglu E, et al (2008). The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura. Magnes Res, 21(2):101-8. doi: 10.1684/mrh.2008.0132