PS is a naturally occurring aminophospholipid found in high concentrations in the brain. Studies indicate its ability to reduce stress, fatigue, attention deficit and forgetfulness, and to increase mental processing speed and accuracy, attention and working memory.

Scientific Name:
Phosphatidylserine, (PS)


  • Essential component in cell lipid membranes
  • Signaling agent for apoptosis[1]
  • Increases aerobic capacity, possibly through hormone regulation[2,3]
  • Can be converted to other phospholipids including phosphatidylcholine
  • Involved in neurotransmitter modulation and intercellular communication[4]
  • Enhances brain glucose metabolism[5]
  • Global enhancement of mental function shown on EEG[6]
  • Increases NGF activity[7]

[1] Lee SH, et al (2013). Phosphatidylserine exposure during apoptosis reflects bidirectional trafficking between plasma membrane and cytoplasm. Cell Death Differ, 20(1):64-76. doi: 10.1038/cdd.2012.93
[2] Kingsley MI, et al (2006). Effects of phosphatidylserine on exercise capacity during cycling in active males. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 38(1):64-71. PMID: 16394955
[3] Monteleone P, et al (1990). Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology, 52(3):243-8. doi: 10.1159/000125593
[4] Pedata F, et al (1985). Phosphatidylserine increases acetylcholine release from cortical slices in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging, 6(4):337-9. doi: 10.1016/0197-4580(85)90013-2
[5] Klinkhammer P, et al (1990). Effect of Phosphatidylserine on Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Alzheimer’s Disease. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 1:197–201. doi: 10.1159/000107142
[6] Heiss WD, et al (1994). Long-term effects of phosphatidylserine, pyritinol, and cognitive training in Alzheimer’s disease. A neuropsychological, EEG, and PET investigation. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 5(2):88-98. doi: 10.1159/000106702
[7] De Simone R, et al (2003). Apoptotic PC12  J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 62(2):208-16. doi: